Can Anybody be a Project Manager?

Can Anybody be a Project Manager?

By Koos Taljaard

Opening remarks

Can anybody be a project manager?  The easy answer is yes, everyone can be a project manager, and probably already is: everyone uses project management skills in their day-to-day personal and working life as they are doing ‘projects’ all the time.

The more pertinent question is, if everyone can be an effective project manager, and do they require a different set of skills to manage projects?  To answer the question, it is important to understand what a project is and in so doing better understand what project managers are required to do, their required skill sets and knowledge attributes.

The objective of project management is to complete projects which comply with the client’s business objectives. According to the PMI PMBOK® Guide (PMI, 2017) a project is “a temporary endeavour undertaken to create a unique product, service or result”. A project is thus temporary in that it has a defined start and finish date, and therefore defined scope and resources (including cost). A project is unique in that it is not a routine operation, but a specific set of operations designed to accomplish a singular goal. Project teams often include people who don’t usually work together, people from different organisations and across multiple geographies, bringing their own systems, cultures and aspirations.

Projects and project management

Examples of projects can include the development of software for an improved business process, the construction of a building or bridge, the relief effort after a natural disaster, the expansion of sales into a new geographic market, and the establishment of a new petrochemical complex. This stands in contrast with business as usual (or operations), which are repetitive, permanent, or semi-permanent functional activities to produce products or services.

Project management then, is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet specific project requirements. Projects must be expertly managed to deliver results on-time and on-budget, with minimal or no scope changes, whilst still meeting the original strategic intent or business need.

Many tend to think of project management as a new approach for growth and development. However, project management has been around for thousands of years and was involved in the planning, coordination, and construction of the Ancient Wonders of the World. Throughout the history of project management, the basic principles of project management have always remained the same. In the late 19th century, the need for more structure in the construction, manufacturing, and transportation sectors gave rise to the modern project management tactics we use today. However, it must be remembered that although project management has always been practiced informally, it only began to emerge as a distinct profession in the mid-20th century.

In today’s fast-paced business world, the need for effective project management has become a necessity rather than a luxury. Any formal project, unlike a random set of tasks, requires professional management, and implies teamwork and accountability to finish on time, on budget, and meet quality requirements. Therefore, we have at least two essential roles: the people doing the actual project work and delivering the required outcomes, the team members, and the person directing and leading the project work whilst ensuring that management goals are met, the project manager.

The project manager function

Though specific responsibilities vary depending on industry and project type, a project manager is broadly defined as someone who leads the larger-scale projects, doing everything from ensuring clarity around the scope of work, to onboarding and educating other individuals essential to the project, to project coordination, managing the timelines, scope and budgets associated with the undertaking.

Project managers work closely with individuals of different organisations, ranks, departments and stakeholders, thereby ensuring effective planning, coordinating the efficient and flow of information among all project stakeholders. Depending on the industry and organisational structure, projects managers may either focus on a single project at a time or manage multiple projects with their respective timelines and responsibilities.

As you can probably tell by the description, this role is essential in nearly all industries and fields of work, meaning the actual types of projects managed can take nearly any shape and form. Most project managers, however, choose to specialise in a specific industry to ensure they’re equipped to handle its unique challenges.

The job of a project manager includes three broad areas:

  • Assuming responsibility for the project as a whole;
  • Employing relevant project management processes; and
  • Leading the team.

Skills required

To understand what an effective project manager is, we need to unpack the skills and attributes of a project manager. The key and most important skills required to be an effective project manager are:

  • Strong leadership: Effective project management means having strong leadership qualities such as being able to motivate the team and other stakeholders and lead /direct them to maximum performance, so that they can achieve challenging project goals;
  • Competence:Good project managers can initiate new projects as well as face the challenges that come with it.  They follow a formal stage-gated process and are fully competent with the requirements of all project steps during the different project stages;
  • Project management technical expertise:Since project management software systems, procedures and other related programs are essential in accomplishing the project goals, an effective project manager needs to have sound technical project management knowledge to understand the issues that are related to the technical aspect. You need good processes and project systems to be effective as your projects get larger;
  • Communication skills: Good project managers are good communicators so that they can connect with people at all levels inside or outside their organisation. The project manager must clearly explain the project goals as well as each member’s tasks, responsibilities, expectations and feedback. By some estimates, more than 50% of a project manager’s time is spent in some aspect of communication. This includes meetings, status reporting, emails, phone calls, coordinating, talking to people, and completing documentation. Some studies have even suggested that verbal and written communication takes up 80% of the job;
  • People and team-building skills:It is necessary that a team works in unison, otherwise the project will undergo various relationship challenges that might hinder its success. Project managers must make each of their team members realise the importance of their contribution and focus on their positive traits. He must be fair and just in the way he treats team members. If you prefer to stay in your office and focus on your own work, you may not have the collaborative ability to be a good project manager. Effective project managers need to spend a lot of time with clients, stakeholders, and team members;
  • Decision-making skills: An effective project manager needs to have decision-making skills because there will always be decisions that need to be acted on, often with time constraints;
  • Coordination and delegation skills: Many people like to work on the project details. We need people like that. But when you’re a project manager, you must rise above the details and become more of a delegator and coordinator. You must be able to rely on others for much of the detailed work, but must still be able to do the mundane and detail work when required;
  • People management skills: To be a good project manager, you need to be able to manage people. You won’t have 100% responsibility for staff members, but you will need to show leadership, hold them accountable, manage conflict, etc. Some project managers say they could do a much better job if they didn’t have to deal with people. If that’s how you feel, project management is probably not for you;
  • Planning and execution skills:When a client gives you a project, what is your immediate inclination? If your first thought is to get a team together to start executing the work, you may not have a project management mindset. If you don’t want to spend enough time to be sure you understand what is required, and what is the best approach to achieve results, the role of project manager is likely a bad fit for you;
  • Organising skills:People who have poor personal organisational skills and techniques usually don’t make good project managers. If you’re going to manage multiple people over a period, you must be organised, so you can ensure that everyone is doing what they should be doing as efficiently as possible; and
  • Reporting skills:You don’t have to love reporting status and progress to be a good project manager, but you can’t hate it either. Most, if not all, aspects of project management require extensive documentation and document control, including project charters, execution plans, status reporting, communication plans and scope change management.

The process of becoming a project manager is unique because there isn’t one single prescribed path to becoming one. Some decide they want to be a project manager and take classes and get a project management qualification, while others, with unrelated degrees or experience, find themselves taking on the responsibilities of a project manager with no formal project management training.

Attributes required

Over and above skills which can be learned, developed and improved, effective project managers require specific inherent attributes. Here are some attributes of good project managers:

  • Get to know their team and how they work: Understand that a project isn’t about the project manager. He understands that knowing how to communicate with the project team and establishing a system that works for everyone is crucial to the project’s success. With a structure that accommodates the team, he gets everyone on board to focus on what’s important;
  • Inspire a shared vision:An effective project manager understands the project’s vision very well and can articulate the vision to his team members and other stakeholders. A visionary person can lead his people to the right direction as well as easily adapt to the changes that come along the way. They are good at enabling people to experience the vision as their own;
  • Keep stakeholders in the loop: The project manager continuously communicates with all stakeholders verbally and in writing. He looks forward to coordination sessions with his team to talk about what’s happening, what has been accomplished, and what steps to take next;
  • Identify and establish parameters: The project manager makes sure that everyone understands the project objectives and works within the agreed and approved scope of the project. This way, he can set reasonable expectations, feasible tasks and goals;
  • Present and prepared for anything: As deadlines approach, the project manager checks in regularly to see if the team will be able to deliver on time and if there are questions or problems that need to be addressed. He is ready to deal with the pressure of delivering on time, even if it means realising mistakes have been made, and doing everything possible to correct them;
  • Confidently speak on behalf of the team: Clients will want the project manager on the phone or at a meeting at any time to discuss progress, updates, and changes that need to be made. Because the project has a well-defined scope and the project manager has checked in with his team on a regular basis, he will be able to take those calls or attend client meetings with the relevant information to share;
  • Not easily swayed: A client, partner, or team member may approach and present the project manager or team members with new ideas, requirements, or questions. The project manager needs to be open to hearing these new ideas, but make sure to keep in mind the original scope of work and project requirements. If they align or improve on the original scope in terms of safety performance, he is willing to discuss things further. If not, he is not afraid to turn down those ideas and present valid reasons for doing so;
  • Seek out and consult with subject matter experts: Effective project managers know their own limitations. They know that when clients have specific concerns, to seek out knowledgeable people and consult with them. The project manager thereby acknowledges that, with their level of experience and knowledge, the subject matter experts are the best people to answer those questions; and
  • Encourage and congratulate others for a job well done: The role as a project manager goes beyond monitoring progress and checking in on deadlines. He “owns and supports the process” of putting together and bringing the project to fruition. He cheers his team members on and congratulates them for every successful milestone achieved, yet at the same time he is not afraid to ask questions or raise issues that he may anticipate.

Thus, project management is far more than just management. If you haven’t already guessed it, these attributes show that project management isn’t solely about managerial skills and know-how.

Comparing Project Management and General Management

There are strong views that any good general/operational/technical manager will always be a good project manager and vice versa. This is not true, and it is a rarity for a person to have the skills and attributes to be able to effectively manage both types of work.

A general/operational/technical manager has a wider scope of responsibility than the project manager, and the operations/technical role is permanent while the project manager role is temporary. Operational management is an ongoing function in an organisation that performs activities that produce products or services. Operations are ongoing; some examples include accounting and human resources. An organisation needs those roles no matter what initiative(s) they may be working on.

The very fact that the role of a project manager is temporary implies that a project team is basically a ‘short-term’ association. In a fixed operations/technical management team, the team members report directly to the manager who leads that team and those member roles in the team will generally be long-term. The manager is responsible for creating good team work and setting the norms and behaviours of the team. He/she needs to build trust and respect in the team, encourage the sharing of information, opinions and feelings for the benefit of the team, and set targets to appraise the performance of the team members.

A project team will consist of people from different departments across different sites of the organisation and/or contracting establishments. Sometimes, project team members may still report to their functional departmental manager, as well as reporting to the project manager. As the priorities of the other departmental managers change, the project team’s stability can waver, but it should never compromise the project outcomes. Where team member report to more than one manager, appraisal of his or her work may pose problems. Here the project manager needs to find the right balance between constructive team building initiatives with an emphasis on open and honest communication.

The skills needed by the project manager are different to those needed by operational managers. General differences between general/operational/technical management and project management are shown in Table 1.  Simply put, project management is unique and highly planned, yet unpredictable. The principal difference between project management and operational management is that the project manager has a temporary role, which leads to some specific differences and difficulty in the case of team building effort.

Insight 061 - Table 1

Table 1: General/operational/technical management vs. project management

Personality types best suited to project management

What personality type fits best into project management? It will depend largely on the type, scale of the project and the experience of the project team. There are many models used to describe personalities. One of the most prevalent is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) (Myers & Briggs Foundation, 2019). Based on the answers to the questions on the questionnaire, people are identified as having one of 16 personality types. The goal of the MBTI is to allow respondents to further explore and understand their own personalities including their likes, dislikes, strengths, weaknesses, possible career preferences, and compatibility with other people. 

The questionnaire itself is made up of four different scales, namely:

  • Extraversion – Introversion: Projects are about people and teams, so good project managers tend to be at least somewhat extroverted. Introverted project managers may find their projects wandering out of control because they are insufficiently engaged with the people responsible for the work;
  • Sensing – Intuition: A second scale considers the dichotomy between a preference for observable data and a preference for intuitive information. Projects are best managed using measurable facts that can be verified and tested;
  • Thinking – Feeling: A third scale relates to whether decisions are based on logical objective analysis or on feelings and values. Projects, especially technical projects, proceed most smoothly when decisions are based on consistent, analytical criteria; and
  • Judging – Perceiving: The fourth MBTI scale is the one most strongly aligned with project management, and it describes how individuals conduct their affairs. On one extreme is the individual who plans and organises what must be done, which is what project management is mostly about. On the other extreme is the individual who prefers to be spontaneous and flexible. Projects run by these ‘free spirits’ tend to be chaotic nightmares and may never reach completion.

Project managers need to be ‘technical enough’. For small, technical projects, it is common for the project leader to be a highly technical subject matter expert. For larger programs, project managers are seldom masters of every technical detail, but generally they are knowledgeable enough to ensure that communications are clear and that status can be verified. On small, technical projects, the project manager may be a technical guru, but that becomes much less important and often problematic as the work grows. Large-scale projects require an effective leader who can motivate people and delegate the work to those who understand the technical details.

Finally, good project managers are upbeat and optimistic. They always need to be liked (mostly not, however) and trusted by project sponsors and upper management to be successful. They communicate progress honestly, even when a project runs into trouble. Retaining the confidence of your stakeholders in times of trouble also requires communicating credible strategies for recovery. Effective leaders meet challenges with an assumption that there is a solution. With a positive attitude, often, they find one.

Closing remarks

Although the processes of effective project management have only been recognised for around 50 years, project management has been around since the dawn of mankind. From amazing feats of engineering and construction in ancient times to the complex projects we see today, the history of project management is vast, extensive, and ever-growing.

It can clearly be seen that the project manager requires a very wide skills base to be effective, making them more of a generalist than a specialist. Many of these skills cannot be taught and are revealed more naturally in the person. Training will enhance and improve these skills. However, project management is not for everyone. Many people have some of the traits to be a good project manager, but they may also have qualities that make them a bad fit for the position.

Project management, especially for larger projects, is a highly demanding and a time-consuming job. The project manager needs to be skillful and experienced in a wide sphere of the working environment, from very strong leadership, communication and people skills to very strong project and technical skills.

Effective project managers have a lot in common with all good managers. Good project managers are people oriented and will quickly establish effective working relationships with their team members. However, the skills required is very wide ranging and somewhat different from normal management.  Project management is definitely not for everybody.

A quote to consider when contemplating this career path is the following by Tom Kendrick (2011): “Everyone cannot be an effective project manager, and not all project managers will be successful in all types of projects, but if you believe you have the traits described above go for it. It will be very challenging and most times rewarding”.

References

Kendrick T.,2011, 101 Project management problems and how to solve them. Published by AMACOM.

Myers & Briggs Foundation, 2019, MTBI basics. Available from https://www.myersbriggs.org/my-mbti-personality-type/mbti-basics/home.htm?bhcp=1.Accessed on 28 April 2019.

PMI, 2017, A guide to the project management body of knowledge (PMBOK® guide), 6th edition, Project Management Institute, Newtown Square, PA.  

 

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The Project Management Office (PMO)

The Project Management Office (PMO)

By Koos Taljaard

“Our leaders are great thinkers. We need to take those ideas, make sure they are grounded and able to be executed.   The PMO helps us do that.”President of project services, global construction services provider, North America (Forrester Consulting, 2013)

Introduction

There are many reasons why projects fail. A survey of 1524 organisations by PriceWaterhouseCoopers (PwC, 2013), found that inadequate project estimating and planning constitute 30% of project failures, lack of executive sponsorship constitutes 16% and poorly defined goals and objectives constitute 12%. The survey also found that using established project management approaches increased success as measured by a project’s key performance indicators of quality, scope, schedule, budgets, and benefits. The survey concludes that an established Project Management Office (PMO) is one of the top three reasons that drive successful project delivery.

The PMO is the organisational entity, group or department within an organisation or business, that defines and maintains standards for project and programme management within the organisation. The Project Management Institute (PMI, 2017) defines the PMO as “an organisational body or entity assigned various responsibilities related to the centralised and coordinated management of those projects under its domain.”

The responsibilities of the PMO can range from providing project management support functions, project management oversight to actually being responsible for the direct management of projects. Strategic initiatives are essential to success in today’s increasingly complex business world, yet most initiatives (projects) fail to meet the desired business objectives during implementation. PMOs serve as enablers of strategic change in the organisation to drive successful business outcomes. The PMO is a strategic driver for organisational excellence, which seeks to enhance the practices of execution management, organisational governance, and strategic change leadership.

Project and programme management

Opening remarks

Before we consider the functions and duties of the PMO, it is necessary to first revisit the functions of project and programme management.  This will help in better understanding the role and placement of the PMO in the organisation.

Role of project and programme management

The objective of project and programme management is to complete projects which comply with the client’s business objectives.

Project management is the practice of initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closing the work of a team to achieve specific goals and meet specific success criteria at the specified time. A project is a temporary endeavour designed to produce a unique product, service or result with a defined beginning and end (usually time-constrained, and often constrained by funding or staffing) undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives, typically to bring about beneficial change or added value.

The temporary nature of projects stands in contrast with business as usual (or operations), which are repetitive, permanent, or semi-permanent functional activities to produce products or services. In practice, the management of such distinct production approaches requires the development of distinct technical skills and management strategies.

The primary challenge of project and programme management is to achieve the organisation’s project and programme objectives within the given resource constraints. The primary constraints are scope, time, quality and budget. The secondary – and more ambitious – challenge is to optimise the allocation of necessary inputs and apply them to meet pre-defined objectives.

Programme and project Governance

According to van Heerden et al (2015), programme and project governance fits within the overall governance of the organisation and is therefore ultimately the responsibility of the board of directors.  It is regarded as a subset of the organisation’s overall corporate governance as illustrated in Figure 1.

Figure1 Project Governance

Figure 1:  Programme and project governance is a subset of corporate governance (van Heerden, Steyn & van der Walt, 2015)

Referring to Figure 1, the outer circle reflects all the business activities of the organisation.  Within this sphere of operation, there are governance activities and programme/project management activities.  The overlap of these two sets of activities, i.e. the intersection in the diagram, represents governance of programme and project management.  Programme and project governance principles for an owner organisation will be entrenched in the owner’s project/programme management work methodologies.

Governance of programme and project management defines the framework within which programmes and projects will be conducted.  It sets out the structure, resources, communication, reporting and monitoring systems to manage projects consistent with the organisation’s corporate or strategic vision.  Ideally, this will be the responsibility of the PMO.

The Project Management Office

Opening remarks

Ever wondered what it takes to build a great project organisation? Well, a PMO is a good place to start, and will help you to standardise processes and drive up project success rates.

PMO types

PMOs may also take on other functions beyond standards and methodology, and participate in strategic project management either as the facilitator or act as the owner of the portfolio management process. The degree of control and influence that PMOs have on projects depend on the type of organisational and governance structure within the organisation.  The PMO can typically be one of three types from an organisational exposure perspective, namely:

  • Supportive PMO:  PMO with a consultative role only;
  • Controlling PMO:  Enterprise PMO which requires compliance with standards and procedures (this is the default option); and
  • Directive PMO:  PMO taking control and managing the projects.

The PMO strives to standardise and introduce economies of scale and repetition in the execution of projects. The PMO is the source of documentation, guidance, oversight, training and performance metrics on the good practice of project management and execution.

The PMO supports the strategic objective of the organisation and fulfils a key organisation management and/or oversight role in programme and project management and governance processes.

The PMO roles and responsibilities

There’s no one-size-fits-all PMO for an organisation. Typical roles and responsibilities of the PMO are shown in Figure 2, and include:

  • Organisation programme strategy: Research, analyse, review, assist and advise on the development of effective organisational strategies regarding programme and project effectiveness;
  • Project management framework: Become a Centre of Excellence for project execution: develop, maintain and continuously improve a common set of project and programme management systems, gate review and approval system, methodologies, procedures, standards, governance principles, practices and templates for managing projects in line with best practices and organisational requirements;
  • Project portfolio management: Compile the project portfolio by classifying, selecting and prioritising projects and programmes based on the company strategy and available resources, preparing decision-making support documentation and facilitating decision-making for the portfolio board. Review recommend and report progress to top management on strategic decisions and priorities of projects to be included in the feasibility pipeline, approval for implementation: continue, postpone or cancel.  Manage programmes and projects on behalf of the organisation, if there is no-one else to do so;
  • Project portfolio optimisation:  The selection of the best combination and timing of programmes and projects to ensure that all strategic and mandatory business needs are met and that the company generates the optimal return on investment for its shareholders.
  • Project governance and portfolio tracking:  Ensure that project management procedures and standards are followed by performing regular project health assessments.  Ensure that the projects and programmes are executed according to the company’s project procedures, and executed as efficiently as possible within the policy framework;
  • Project prioritisation and stage-gate support:  Develop and maintain a project stage-gate execution model.  Support the organisation and project teams in taking ideas through structured prioritisation and stage-gate review and approval processes.  Responsible for stage risk reviews, gate readiness reviews, and quality assurance deep-dives;
  • Project knowledge management:  Create a knowledge base with lessons learned, best practices and improvement steps from past projects to avoid repeating errors over and over;
  • Project related training:  Develop training materials and train and coach project leaders, sponsors and stakeholders.  Select, implement and train employees on applicable project management methodologies, tools and software;
  • Project resources management:  Manage a resource capacity plan or resource forecast to help understand the resources required for projects and programmes.  Maintain current project employee data, especially in terms of capacity, project allocations and skills;
  • Project operational support:  Administrative and operational support for project managers and project teams in the areas of conflict management, risk management, integration management, safety, health and environmental management, quality management, workshop moderation, government relations and public affairs; and
  • Promote information flow and communication; Improve project and programme management and transparent communication: The PMO in today’s digital world is a PMO that has the capability to provide projects’ management tools, systems and information to any relevant stakeholder, at any time, on any device. It is real-time data processing, made available in a web and mobile-friendly format. As the speed and complexity of our operating environments continue to steadily accelerate, a consistent point for coordination, collaboration, and sourcing information becomes essential. Digital PMOs use new technologies to facilitate collaboration and information sharing inside and outside project teams. An example is the way OTC is utilising Google’s G Suite to effectively communicate, create, collaborate, track and update documents and deliverables on projects, between the entire team.

Fig 2 Roles of the PMO

Figure 2:  Roles of the PMO

Often PMOs base project management principles on industry-standard methodologies such as PRINCE2 and PMBOK®.  PRINCE2 (an acronym for PRojects IN Controlled Environments) is a process-based method for effective project management and is used extensively by the UK Government and in the private sector, both in the UK and internationally (PRINCE2, 2018).  PMBOK® is the acronym used by the Project Management Institute, and refers to their Project Management Body Of Knowledge, a fundamental resource for effective project management in any industry (PMI, 2017).

Concluding remarks

It is essential for the PMO to play a crucial role in delivering organisational value by supporting the implementation of key strategic projects and programmes. To do this, PMOs must become more strategic, shifting their emphasis from process to value delivery, while developing their capabilities and processes accordingly.

Building on the findings of Forrester Consulting (2013), we identify five imperatives for PMOs to better engage and support senior leaders are as follows:

  • Have a seat at the executive table: Strategic results require strategic positioning. PMOs that are highly effective in driving business growth report to the top management;
  • Be part of the strategic planning team: They are a vital part of the strategic planning team. Since portfolio management is a core competency, PMOs actively participate in strategic planning and help shape strategy by providing feedback to executives about performance, labour costs, and customer feedback;
  • Focus on critical initiatives: While the PMO is essentially an organisational structure that centralises, coordinates, and oversees the management of projects and programmes, it must be set up, to align with the organisation culture, structures and requirements;
  • Foster talent and grow competencies: They embrace core competencies. Excellence in project management remains a critical capability for PMOs. The most successful organisations recognise the specific role of the project manager and build significant learning and development programmes to mature project management skills; and
  • Embrace new digital technology: Every organisation, in whatever industry it operates, must have an information technology layer with a strong focus on innovative and creative technologies. The organisation needs to be quick to respond to a changing business environment. The PMO of today must actively seek ways to improve overall organisational performance as well as ways to communicate performance improvements across the enterprise using new technologies and flexible operating models.

Successful implementation of initiatives requires that PMOs be given corporate commitment and are empowered. The selection of, culture, professionalism and management style of the PMO is critical, as this establishment is expected to enhance stakeholder value and satisfaction. However, poorly conceived and managed PMOs could lead to significant dissatisfaction and resistance by stakeholders, project leaders, and management due to the oversight role it must fulfill.

Maritato (2012) shows how a business analysis approach can be used for defining a PMO business case through a full enterprise analysis process and introduces some useful techniques to define the PMO benefit vs. cost, tightly linked to the business need.

References

Forrester Consulting, 2013, Strategic PMOs play a vital role in driving business outcomes. Commissioned by Project Management Institute. Pdf file available from  https://www.pmi.org/-/media/pmi/documents/public/pdf/learning/thought-leadership/forrester-pmos-play-vital-role.pdf. Accessed on 26 September 2018.

PwC, 2013, The third global survey on the current state of project management. PriceWaterhouseCoopers.

Maritato, M., 2012, Creating a PMO business case through a business analysis approach. Paper presented at PMI® Global Congress 2012 held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Available from https://www.pmi.org/learning/library/pmo-business-case-solution-6054.  Accessed on 28 September 2018.

PMI, 2017, A guide to the project management body of knowledge (PMBOK® guide), 6th edition, Project Management Institute, Newtown Square, PA.

PRINCE2, 2018, PRojects IN Controlled Environments.  Available from https://www.prince2.com.  Accessed on 26 September 2018.

van Heerden, F.J., Steyn, J.W. & van der Walt, D., 2015, Programme management for owner teams- a practical guide to what you need to know, OTC Publications, Vaalpark, RSA. Available from Amazon.

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